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Development of detectable antibodies in the blood of a person who previously did not have detectable antibodies.


Measurement of antibodies, and other immunological properties, in the blood.


The detection of antibodies in blood through a laboratory test.


Foreign substance (e.g., bacterium or virus) that is capable of causing an immune response in the body. The presence of antigens in the body triggers the immune system to act, usually producing antibodies and other immune cells.

Demyelinating disorders

A medical condition where the myelin sheath, which surrounds nerves, is damaged. These nerves are responsible for the transmission of impulses to the brain. Damage to the myelin sheath results in muscle weakness, poor coordination and possible paralysis. Examples of…


Autism is a neurodevelopmental difference that affects how autistic people experience the world around them. Autistic people are an important part of the world. Autism is a normal neurological variation.


A substance that cannot prevent or treat disease. In vaccine testing, the placebo may contain everything that is normally in the vaccine except the active ingredient. A placebo is used in clinical trials to test the effectiveness of vaccines. People…

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