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The detection of antibodies in blood through a laboratory test.

Typhoid fever

Typhoid fever is a life-threatening illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella typhi. People with typhoid fever may carry the bacteria in their bloodstream and intestinal tract, some for a long time.


A once commonly used preservative in multi-dose vaccine vials, thimerosal breaks down into ethylmercury and is excreted from the body. Thimerosal has been used in vaccines, other drugs, and even contact lens solutions since the 1930s. Today, there are no…


A disease caused by a bacterium found in the environment (like soil and manure). The infection causes muscle spasms and stiffness, which can last for weeks. Breathing can be affected by these symptoms. 10-20% of people with tetanus will die,…

Temporal association

Two or more events that occur around the same time but might be unrelated, chance occurrences. For example, a child receives an MMR vaccine around 1 year old - the same time most children start walking.  But the MMR vaccine…

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