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Polysaccharide vaccine

Vaccines that are composed of long chains of sugar molecules that resemble the surface of certain types of bacteria. Polysaccharide vaccines are available for pneumococcal disease.

Poliomyelitis (polio)

Poliomyelitis (polio) is a viral infection that is spread person-to-person through the fecal-oral route. Children who have polio shed the virus in their excrement (poop). It is most commonly spread through unclean hands, contaminated food, and untreated water. Some people…


Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that can cause them to fill with fluid. Bacteria, viruses, or fungus can cause it. Bacterial and viral pneumonia can be spread from person to person.


[“pe TEEK ee eye”] — Tiny reddish or purplish spots on the skin or mucous membrane. These spots do not turn white when pressed. Petechiae has many causes such as trauma, injury, and viral or bacterial infections.

Pertussis (whooping cough)

Pertussis, or Whooping Cough, is a bacterial infection that causes violent, uncontrollable coughing and difficulty breathing. It is sometimes called the 100-day cough for its long-lasting effects. Pertussis can affect anyone but is extremely serious and sometimes deadly for babies…

Passive immunity

Protection against disease when you are given another person or animal’s antibodies, or manufactured antibodies. While passive immunity takes effect immediately it is not as strong or long lasting as active immunity. For example, a mother’s antibodies are passed to…


A worldwide epidemic (e.g., COVID-19)


When cases of a disease spreads beyond what is normal, infecting a lot of people in a defined population or area.


Inflammation of one or both testicles, often a complication of mumps. Most patients recover but in rare cases sterility occurs.


Weakness, numbness, pain, or all three caused by damage to the nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord.

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