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A condition which makes a particular treatment or procedure inadvisable. For example, someone undergoing chemotherapy may be advised to wait on some vaccines, particularly live viral vaccines.

Conjugate vaccine

The addition of a compound (e.g., a sugar or a protein) to an antigen that increases a vaccine’s effectiveness.

Community immunity

Community immunity happens when enough people in a community are immune to a disease that they “shield” those who don’t have immunity from getting the disease. This immunity can come from the disease itself but that means that a lot…


A disease that can be passed from one person or animal to another.

Combination vaccine

Combination vaccines take two or more vaccines that could be given individually and put them into one shot or oral dose.

Causal association

A relationship between two things where one thing makes a change in the other one happen. For instance, smoking has a causal association with lung cancer.

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